Made In Canada: Covering All the Bases
In 1921, Canadian Frederick Banting travelled to Toronto to explain his idea for Insulin to J.J.R. MacLeod, who was Professor of Physiology at the University of Toronto. Banting was given the use of MacLeod's lab while he was away in Scotland for the summer. When he returned, the experiments had proved a success, and Banting was given better equipment by MacLeod to finalize the product. To purify the extract, James Collip was called in, and together they were able to finalize the extract for clinical use.
The first external pacemaker was designed, then built, by the Canadian electrical engineer John Hopps. Based on the observations of cardio-thoracic surgeon Wilfred Gordon Bigelow at the Toronto General Hospital, Hopps created the device in 1950. Though the pacemaker served its supposed purpose, the design was crude, slightly painful for the patient to use and it carried the potential hazard of electrocution. These problems were eliminated in later devices.
It's heavily disputed who really invented the telephone, many inventors and scientists made breakthroughs that eventually led to the telephone, but Alexander Graham Bell is the man that received a US patent for the telephone in 1876. Bell was born in Scotland, but spent most of his life across the pond in Canada. His first home in Canada was near Brantford, Ontario.
Another debated discovery, Walkie Talkies are credited to being created by one of two men, both of which are Canadian. Donald Hings invented a very early prototype of a large device with 'walkie talkie-like' functionality, while Alfred Gross is credited as making the first real 'walkie talkie'.
Graeme Ferguson and Roman Kroitor are the two men associated with creating the IMAX film format. They're both Canadians as well. Ferguson is also one of the three co-founders of IMAX Corperation and a Member of the Order of Canada since 1993. Kroitor was a Canadian filmmaker, largely involved with the National Film Board of Canada.
The still-popular board game was originally created in Montreal by The Gazette's photo editor Chris Haney and sports editor for The Canadian Press, Scott Abbott. In North America, the game's popularity peaked in 1984, though it was first released 1979, a few years before. Hasbro currently owns the rights to the game, and many updated or spin-ff versions have come out since.
Developed by Canadian company MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates, the Canadarm is one of Canada's biggest contributions to space explorations, and at the time of its invention was one of a kind in terms of it's design and capabilities. The original Canadarm, known as Canadarm1 now, was retired in July of 2011 after 90 missions. The Canadarm2 is now in use.
The Electron Microscope:
Though not the original inventor, Eli Frankton Burton designed the first practical Electron Microscope in the late 1930s at the University of Toronto with the help of university students Cecil Hall, James Hillier and Albert Prebus. This earned him a spot in the Royal Society of Canada and he received the Henry Marshall Tory Award in 1947. He was also a member of the National Research Council of Canada.
Though games reminiscent of the Hockey we know today had appeared throughout history since the Middle Ages, the first established rules for the game appeared in Canada. The game of 'shinney' (now a term used for informal hockey games) appeared in Halifax, on the St. Lawrence river among other places. The sport began appearing in newspapers under the name Hockey and the rest is history.
Dr. James Naismith of the YMCA created Basketball in December of 1891. Basketball was originally played with asymmetrical balls, and dribbling wasn't part of the sport. Though Basketball is much larger in the States then Canada now, it originated here.
Okay, so this one is pretty debatable. He was created by an American and Canadian in Cleveland Ohio, but they each played an equal part in his creation. American writer, Jerry Siegel created the story alongside Canadian artist Joe Shuster, who designed the instantly-recognizable costume.